One-On-One Instruction

If a teacher's job is to take each child from where he/she is to where he/she needs to go in reading, then that teacher must assess individuals.

--(Fountas & Pinnell)


Time spent by a teacher with an individual student using assessment tools or texts at the student's instructional level. By closely watching and listening, the teacher identifies individual student strengths and deficits to give immediate feedback and plan future teaching emphasis.

Teacher Role

Before During After
  • Select individual assignment tools or text to use
  • Set up classroom environment that promotes working with individual students
  • Administer individual student assessment
  • Listen and observe child's reading behaviors
  • Make notes/records about student's strategies, strengths, deficits
  • Provide individual instruction as appropriate to increase strengths and improve areas of deficits
  • Analyze student errors from individual assessment
  • Select area(s) for future teaching emphases
  • Plan most appropriate component in which to deliver teaching emphases
  • Encourage student to apply strategies from teaching emphases in their reading
  • Share insight about student's strengths/deficits with child, support staff, or parents as appropriate

Student Role

Before During After


  • Give it your best!
  • Use the reading strategies you have learned to read
  • Listen for strategies from your teacher to help you become a better reader
  • Think about strategies your teacher gave you
  • Apply strategies to new reading situations


  • It is important to look at how readers process words and text features within the meaningful context of the text. What kinds of errors (miscues) do readers make? How do these miscues seem to affect comprehension? What do the miscues reveal about the strategies and cues they are using to process text? (Braunger & Lewis, 1997)
  • Assessment and instruction are integral processes, each informing the other to meet the individual needs of students. (Braunger & Lewis, 1997)